1- How do you use the verb be in English

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1- How do you use the verb be in English

The verb be is

used as an auxiliary verb and it can also be used as a main verb. The verb be is irregular. It has eight different forms: be, am, is, are, was, were, being, been. The present simple and past simple tenses make more changes than those of other verbs

I am lateWe are late
You are late       You are late
He is lateThey are late
I was lateWe were late 
You were late    You were late
She was lateThey were late

The present participle is being. He is being very helpful these days .The past participle is been .We have been ready for an hour

The present simple tense forms of be are often contracted in normal speech. Note that the contracted form of they are is spelled they’re, and not their which is the possessive form of they

I’m hereWe’re here
You’re here    You’re here
He’s hereThey’re here

Any form of be is made negative by adding not immediately after it. In speech, some forms of be also have contracted negative forms. Some of these forms emphasize the negative

 emphasizes the negative 
I’m not late 
You aren’t lateYou’re not late
He isn’t lateHe’s not late
We aren’t lateWe’re not late
They aren’t lateThey’re not late
 
I wasn’t late  
You weren’t late  
He wasn’t late  
We weren’t late  
They weren’t late  

The major uses of be as an auxiliary verb are to form continuous tenses and the passive

Continuous tenses of main verbs use the appropriate form of be, present or past, followed by the present participle (or -ing form)

The passive form of a main verb uses the appropriate form of be followed by the past participle

The verb be is also used as a main verb. It is commonly found joining a subject to its complement. As a main verb, be is used to talk about

Feelings and states. For this we use the simple tenses of the verb with a suitable adjective

I am delighted with the news but he is not happy .She was busy so she was not able to see me

People’s behaviour. For this we use the continuous tenses of the verb with a suitable adjective

I am not being slow, I am being careful .You were being very rude to your mum when I came downstairs

Be + the to infinitive is sometimes used to refer to future time. This is a rather formal use, which often appears in news reports

The Prime Minister is to visit Hungary in October. The Archbishop is to have talks with the Pope next month

It + be: we use it as a subject when we are talking about time, distance, weather, or cost. In this use, be is always singular

Hurry up, it’s eight thirty! Is it? I didn’t know it was so late .It’s thirty miles to Glasgow.Come and visit us. It’s not very far .It’s cold today but it isn’t wet .It’s very expensive to live in London

There + is/are is used to talk about something existing. In this use, the form that be takes may be singular or plural, depending on the number of the noun, and be is sometimes contracted

There’s a spare toothbrush in the cupboard. There was a cold wind blowing .There isn’t enough petrol for the journey .There are several petrol stations on the way, aren’t there ?To make the continuous tenses of the main verb be we have to use be twice, once as an auxiliary and once as a main verb

You are being so annoying! I know I am being silly, but I am frightened. The question form of clauses with the verb be in them is made by putting the appropriate form of be right in front of the subject.Are you better now ?Is he free this morning? Was he cooking dinner when you arrived

تصريف الفعل To be

Simple presentPresent continuousPresent perfect
I am
You are
He/She/It is
We are
They are
I am being
You are being
He/She/It is being
We are being
They are being
I have been
You have been
He/She/It has been
We have been
They have been
Simple pastPast continuousPast perfect
I was
You were
He/She/It was
We were
They were
I was being
You were being
He/She/It was being
We were being
They were being
I had been
You had been
He/She/It had been
We had been
They had been
Simple futureFuture continuousFuture perfect
I will be
You will be
He/She/It will be
We will be
They will be
I will be being
You will be being
He/She/It will be being
We will be being
They will be being
I will have been
You will have been
He/She/It will have been
We will have been
They will have been

What is an auxiliary verb in English? – Easy Learning Grammar

An auxiliary verb is a verb that is used together with a main verb to show time and continuity

Be and have are the primary auxiliaries. A primary auxiliary is used to construct compound tenses

Be is used to make present continuous and past continuous tenses

I am working. Rob is using the computer .We were all wondering about that.Kevin was teaching in America in 1995.and also for the passive. These books are sold in supermarkets. Martin was arrested and held overnight

Have is used to make present perfect and past perfect tenses

Stephen has finished fixing the car .George and Alice have seen the show already.Amanda had already eaten when we arrived .They had not expected to see us there

Do is the supporting auxiliary. It is used in forming negatives, questions, and emphatic statements

?I do not like sausages at all. Do you like prawns ?You do like prawns, don’t you

Will, would, may, might, can, could, shall, should, and must are examples of modal auxiliary verbs, usually called simply, modal verbs. A modal verb allows us to talk about actions as possible, doubtful, or necessary

Charlie will go home on Friday.Charlie may go home on Friday.Charlie could go home on Friday.Charlie must go home on Friday. Auxiliaries can be combined together in a single verb phrase. For example, a verb phrase may consist of a modal + a form of have + a form of be + a form of a main verb .I could have been making a bad mistake by trusting him. Sara will have been living in New Zealand for 2 years next month .You must have been given the wrong number. The auxiliary verb, or if there is more than one of them, the first auxiliary verb, performs these following grammatical functions

It shows tense and is the finite part of the verb phrase

I have seen it. She had seen it .She has been thinking .She had been thinking

It shows number and person agreement with the subject

She has seen it .They have seen it .I am looking for it. You are looking for it

It will take any negative immediately after it

I do not want to do that .She has not been concentrating

It can come before the subject to make a question

?Do you want to help us?Have you got a mobile phone

Contracted forms

Auxiliaries are very often used in contracted forms. In the case of be and have, the contracted form can involve linking the subject and the auxiliary verb into a single form e.g. I’m, I’ve, we’d, Sue’s (Sue has or Sue is).We’re back!(We are back!)I’ve found it.(I have found it.)They’d gone when I got there.(They had gone when I got there.)Tom’s here.(Tom is here.)

The contracted negative form auxiliary + n’t is common with all the auxiliaries except am, e.g. hasn’t, wouldn’t, don’t. She isn’t (is not) trying .We don’t (do not) live here.He hasn’t (has not) seen it. I can’t (cannot) come.In standard British English, the contracted form of am not, when it is part of a question, is aren’t I .Aren’t I going to need some matches? I’m getting a lift with you, aren’t I

Contracted forms are more informal than full forms. They are therefore more common in spoken English. Full forms are usually preferred in formal written English

Auxiliaries are used in sentence tags. You had only just bought that carpet when the kitchen flooded, hadn’t you? It’s Katie’s birthday on Saturday, isn’t it? You are joking, aren’t you? Auxiliaries are also used to make a short addition to a statement, such as

a positive addition to a positive statemen t, accompanied by so or too

I went to the park and Lucy did too .I loved the film, and so did Finlay

a negative addition to a negative statement, accompanied by neither or nor

My dad never eats mussels and neither do I.I don’t want to speak to William now. – Nor do I.I can’t understand it. – Neither can I

Auxiliaries can be used in positive sentences to give emphasis. When they are emphatic they are never contracted

You have made a mess! T hat was a nice surprise! I am proud of Katie. She’s so clever. In the present simple tense and the past simple tenses the appropriate form of do is used to show emphasis. I do like Penny. – So do I. We did have a lovely time.An auxiliary on its own can be used to give a short answer to a question. Whatever auxiliary is used in the question is used on its own in the answer

The main verb is not repeated. Short answers are very common in spoken English.Do you like avocados? – Yes, I do. or No, I don’t.Have you read anything by Michael Morpurgo? Yes, I have

How do you use the verb ‘have’ in English? – Easy Learning Grammar

The verb have is used as an auxiliary verb She has run a lovely, deep, bubble bath. Katie had read about the concert in the newspaper. and also as a main verb. She is having a bath at the moment .The driver has had his breakfast, so we can go. The verb have has the forms: have, has, having, had. The base form of the verb is have. The present participle is having. The past tense and past participle form is had

The present and past forms are often contracted in everyday speech, especially when have is being used as an auxiliary verb

The contracted forms are

have = ’ve I’ve seen the Queen
has = ’s He’s gone on holiday 
 Ian’s behaved badly
had = ’d You’d better go home
 Ian’d left them behind

The form have contracts to ’ve. This can sound rather like of, especially after other auxiliary verbs. She would’ve given you something to eat. You could’ve stayed the night with us. If he’d asked, I might’ve lent him my car. Avoid the common mistake of writing of in this case. As an auxiliary verb, have is used to make the perfect tenses of main verbs. The perfect tenses of main verbs use the appropriate form of have, present or past, followed by the past participle

 I have read some really good books over the holidays.I had seen the film before. The negative of a clause containing a compound verb with have is made by adding not or another negative word immediately after the appropriate form of have. In speech, some forms of have also have contracted negative forms .I have never seen such luxury.Rachel had not been abroad before .She had hardly had time to eat when Paul arrived

present tense and past tense forms that emphasize the negative element

I/we/you/they’ve nothe/she/it’s not 
I/we/you/he/she/it /they’d not      

She’s not told me about it yet. We’ve not been here before.They’d not seen him for weeks

present tense and past tense negative forms that are used less emphatically

I/we/you/they haven’the/she/it hasn’t 
I/we/you/he/she/it /they hadn’t      

He hasn’t found anywhere to stay this holiday.We haven’t been here before.They hadn’t looked very hard, in my opinion.As a main verb, have is used to talk about

states or conditions, such as possession or relationship

In these uses, continuous tenses are not possible. With this meaning have is sometimes used alone, adding only not to make negatives, and adding nothing to make questions

I have something for you. We haven’t anything for you today.Have you no sense of shame? The driver has had his breakfast, so we can go. We had a good time.    It is also often used with forms of do to make negatives and questions. Do you have a pen? Does she have my umbrella? She doesn’t have any brothers or sisters. Do you have time to see me now

Have got is an informal form of this main verb use of have, often used in speaking, especially in British English

I haven’t got any brothers or sisters.Has she got my umbrella? – Yes, she has.She hasn’t got any money.

activities, including those such as eating, and leisure

With this meaning of have, negatives and questions are formed using one of the forms of do.He was having a shower when I phoned. I’m having lunch at twelve o’clock.Come and have a sandwich with me,No thanks. I don’t usually have lunch .He’s having a day off. Did you have a good holiday? Contractions and weak forms are not possible with this meaning. Have got is not used with this meaning.

to express obligation using have to or have got to

I’ve got to go now, I’m afraid.Do you have to leave so soon?Have you got to leave so soon?When have is a main verb, it makes perfect forms like all other main verbs. This means that it is possible to use have twice in present or past perfect sentences, once as an auxiliary verb and once as a main verb.We have had enough, thank you.They had already had several warnings

How do you use the verb ‘do’ in English? – Easy Learning Grammar

The verb do is used as an auxiliary verb

I do not want iWe do not want it
You do not want itYou do not want it
He does not want itThey do not want it
I did not want itWe did not want it
You did not want itYou did not want it
She did not want it They did not want it 

It can also be used as a main verb. When do is used as an auxiliary verb it is a supporting verb. Because a main verb cannot combine directly with negatives or make questions, do is used to support the main verb. Don’t talk!Don’t run! It is also used to stand in for another verb to avoid repetition. The verb do is irregular. It has five different forms: do, does, doing, did, done

The base form of the verb is do. The past simple form, did, is the same throughout. The present participle is doing. The past participle is done. The present simple tense do and the past simple tense did can be used as an auxiliary verb. As an auxiliary, do is not used with modal verbs

I do not want itWe do not want it 
You do not want itYou do not want it 
He does not want itThey do not want it
I did not want itWe did not want it
You did not want itYou did not want it
She did not want itThey did not want it

As an auxiliary verb do is used in the following ways

to help make the negative and question forms of present simple and past simple tenses

Oh dear, I didn’t feed the cat this morning.Do you know what time it is?Did Tim pay for his ticket last night?

to make the negative form of a command

Don’t talk!Don’t run

to make a command more persuasive 

Do let me see it

to avoid repeating a main verb in additions, commands, sentence tags, and short answers

They often go to the cinema, and so do we .Don’t run on the road! Don’t do it! You live in Glasgow, don’t you ?Do you play cricket? – No, I don’t .Did they tell you the news? – Yes, they did. Jim likes jazz, I think. Yes, he does

in comparisons

She sings better than I do.The positive forms of do cannot be contracted. In speech, the negative has contracted forms.I don’t (do not) agree with you.She doesn’t (does not) live here now.They didn’t (did not) buy any food

present tense negative forms
I/we/you/they don’t; he/she/it doesn’t

past tense negative form
I/we/you/he/she/it/they didn’t

When do is a main verb, it has a range of meanings that includes carry out, perform, fix, or provide. It is sometimes used in place of a more specific verb .I’ll do the lawn now.(I’ll mow the lawn now.)I’ll do you.(I’ll punch you.)We don’t do coach parties.(We don’t serve coach parties.)

It is then used with the full range of tenses and forms. Are you doing your homework? You have been doing well this term. She had done enough, so she stopped. This has been done before. The main verb use of do can be used to talk about:

habits

I do the washing up every evening. This what I usually do

behaviour

He did something rather foolish. I didn’t do anything wrong. What are you doing

plans

What are you doing on Sunday?As a main verb, do makes negatives and questions like all other main verbs

in the present simple tense with auxiliary do

What does he do for a living?Do I do it this way?No, you don’t do it like that at all

in the past simple tense with auxiliary did

Did Henry do it, then? Didn’t Henry do it, then?He  didn’ do it, you know.This means that it is possible to use do twice in negative and interrogative sentences; once as an auxiliary verb and once as a main verb

As a main verb, do can be used with modal verbs

They will do it for you, if you ask nicely.I can do it, but I shouldn’t do it


Present

  • am
  • you are
  • he/she/it is
  • we are
  • you are
  • they are

Preterite

  • was
  • you were
  • he/she/it was
  • we were
  • you were
  • they were

Present continuous

  • am being
  • you are being
  • he/she/it is being
  • we are being
  • you are being
  • they are being

Present perfect

  • have been
  • you have been
  • he/she/it has been
  • we have been
  • you have been
  • they have been

Future

  • will be
  • you will be
  • he/she/it will be
  • we will be
  • you will be
  • they will be

Future perfect

  • will have been
  • you will have been
  • he/she/it will have been
  • we will have been
  • you will have been
  • they will have been

Past continous

  • was being
  • you were being
  • he/she/it was being
  • we were being
  • you were being
  • they were being

Past perfect

  • had been
  • you had been
  • he/she/it had been
  • we had been
  • you had been
  • they had been

Future continuous

  • will be being
  • you will be being
  • he/she/it will be being
  • we will be being
  • you will be being
  • they will be being

Present perfect continuous

  • have been being
  • you have been being
  • he/she/it has been being
  • we have been being
  • you have been being
  • they have been being

Past perfect continuous

  • had been being
  • you had been being
  • he/she/it had been being
  • we had been being
  • you had been being
  • they had been being

Future perfect continuous

  • will have been being
  • you will have been being
  • he/she/it will have been being
  • we will have been being
  • you will have been being
  • they will have been being

PARTICIPLE

IMPERATIVE

  • be
  • let’s be
  • be

Present

  • being

Past

  • been

INFINITIVE

  • to be

PERFECT PARTICIPLE

  • having been

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