16 Personality Types


16 Personality Types

There are sixteen personality types and each of us leans toward one of the types. Each personality type

has four letter

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Types that like making decisions (J’s) and types that keep their options open (P’s)
Types that like details (S’s) and types that look at the forest instead of the trees (N’s)
Types that choose based on emotion (F’s) and types choose based on logic (T’s)
Types that talk a lot because they think out loud (E’s) and types that talk less often because they think before they speak (I’s)

When you put one of each of these four pairs of letters together you know your type. Explanations of the 16 types are below. If you want to find out which type is your typ,. (it’s free!)


ISTJs are loyal and sensible; they are the people that get things done. As the upholders of rules and standards, they are steady influences within a team. They prefer using structured, tried-and-true approaches to solve problems


ISTJs are the behind-the-scenes workers who make things happen. Their sense of duty and loyalty means that they will rarely be happy in front of the crowd, instead preferring to be working behind the scenes

ISTJs are the sensible ones who want to get it right and “do good.” Their value to the team is protection—from mistakes, from omissions, from self-delusion, and from going off-track. They love seeing things come to fruition. Ideas, complexity, and imagination are of value only if they lead to a practical end result

ISTJs need to be clear on what is expected so that they can plan and work with consistent and steady energy toward completion. Opinions are slowly arrived at and, consequently, will be thought out, tried, and tested. ISTJs are not prone to bursts of emotion, flying by the seat of their pants, nor will they thrive in a chaotic environment—unless they have the opportunity to formalize it

Logical, detached, and detailed, ISTJs pride themselves on their store of data and knowledge, all arrived at with clinical procedure and experience. They take great care not to get it wrong, and they want everyone to take responsibility for their actions—and their mistakes

Serious-minded, individualistic, and thorough, ISTJs may focus so much on the task that they forget the needs of others—including themselves

ISTJs like to plan, schedule, and drive through to completion in a logical, linear sequence. Any deviation from the plan would be questioned and may take some convincing of its merits

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Serious and quiet


Responsible and trustworthy

A “no-nonsense” person

Areas of Growth

Consider other possible solutions

Be open to the “big picture”

Make time for fun

Listen more to those around you


The basic attitude of ISTJs is things are what they are and little can be done to change them. ISTJs tend to be quiet, very serious, and concerned about procedures and rules, especially when others are not doing their duty


Organizing facts and details to accomplish a goal

A quiet workspace with few interactions

Clear and stable structures

Being in control of work schedule



Being asked to change something with no rational reason

Requirement to do things in an inefficient way

Being asked to “wing it”

To function at their best

ISTJs need organization and a clear structure in which to work. They need projects to complete and tasks to accomplish. Opportunities to organize and preserve data or materials are key to an ISTJ, as is a clear understanding of their role


ISTJs are consistent and can be easily frustrated by the inconsistencies of others, especially when others don’t adhere to their commitments or agreements. ISTJs do, however, usually keep their feelings to themselves unless they are asked. But when asked, they are unlikely to mince words; they believe that facts, truth, and telling it like it is always wins over tactfulness

Detached and factual, ISTJs often find it difficult to deal with emotions, as they see these as irrational and illogical. When others display emotions, they have to translate the emotion into factual language that they can understand. Deep and private, ISTJs will tend to keep their own feelings to themselves and, until they have the measure of the people around them, ISTJs will be unlikely to proactively share their feelings

Too much interaction sucks their energy. ISTJs like people to stick to agreements and commitments and may not understand that this is human nature, not human deficiency, as they themselves take such commitments incredibly seriously

ISTJ at work

ISTJs value protection at work—from mistakes, from omissions, from self-delusion, and from going off track. In a team situation, ISTJs will bring order, clarity, organization, and planning. Although introverted and so not the most vocal member of the team, ISTJs will seek to make sure the team is best placed to move toward a “known” conclusion in a thorough, planned, and detailed way, without deviation from the plan

Consummate planners, ISTJs love seeing things come to fruition. ISTJs will be great at spotting flaws in arguments, missed details, and preventing the team from heading off in the wrong direction. They seem to have a built-in immunity from getting excited, so they will bring a strong sense of reality and factualness to the team. This may not be inspiring, but it will add so much value in the long term, ensuring agreements are adhered to and things progress according to the plan


ISFJs are responsible, and care deeply about others’ feelings. They are attuned to the immediate, practical needs of people around them and are always trying their best to meet those needs. They are often the do-gooders in a community


ISFJs are the people-centric doers, using their considerable organizational ability to make sure people are taken care of and protected. They are extremely conscientious, hardworking, loyal, and dedicated to people, organizations, and groups. Once they are allied to the cause, they take their roles very seriously. It may be possible to overlook the value of ISFJs, as they are the behind-the-scenes “glue” for organizations and groups

Unlike ESFJs, who will be more outspoken, ISFJs will work steadily and quietly to ensure all the routine details are taken care of and that people are happy. ISFJs remember specifics—details, names, faces—and store them in the pristine filing cabinet in their heads. Rarely will they share their own values, preferring to keep their own counsel and make their focus the needs of others

To others, ISFJs appear to be quiet, shy, gentle individuals, but behind the scenes ISFJs are the movers and shakers who keep things going but do not seek the glory. ISFJs are loyal and devoted to the cause. They have an intense need to belong and will work tirelessly for the cause. They would prefer to remain understated, only needing positive reinforcement from those they trust and value

They will channel their considerable energies into their work, or indeed into anything that has been asked of them. They have incredibly clear and precise memories and are scarily accurate with facts, figures, names, faces—oh, and any person who has slighted them! ISFJs will tend to be proud of “being good with money.” ISFJs take work—indeed, anything they do—seriously and much prefer it when others do the same. They are caring, sympathetic, and want to help but do not need the kudos. They may be suspicious of those who try to confer compliments on them, especially in the early stages of a relationship

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A sympathetic listener


A real team player

Incredible attention to detail with data and facts

Areas of Growth

Take more initiative

Take care of personal needs

Be open to the “big picture”

Recognize the value of conflict


The basic attitude of ISFJs is one of fatalism: Things are what they are and little can be done to change them. It is not uncommon for ISFJs to carry the sins of the world on their shoulders. They easily accept the blame for malfunctions and mistakes


Organizing facts and details to accomplish a goal

Reaching closure before moving to a new task

Clear and stable structures

Being in control of their work schedule



Being asked to make changes with no rational reason

Ineffective processes

Being asked to “wing it”

To function at their best

ISFJs prefer an orderly work environment with human interaction. They need opportunities to respond to the needs of others, creating harmonious relationships


Sensitive, kind, and caring—in a very practical way—ISFJ’s over-accommodating nature means that they may be taken advantage of

Values and feelings are at the heart of who ISFJs are, and they are not to be treated lightly. ISFJs are deep and caring with strong values, and these will be held privately until they allow people in. When a value is transgressed, the perpetrator may get an uncharacteristic verbal lashing, surprising those who thought that “quiet and shy” meant “weak and fragile

ISFJs are sociable but don’t like the spontaneity of crowds. They are an emotional type, but they may struggle at times to deal with their emotions since they are so private and reflective. It may be possible to deeply offend ISFJs and not realize it

ISFJs will initially shut down due to conflict, as they prefer harmony and will work hard at creating that. ISFJs are often called “the defenders,” because they will stand up for what is right and the rights of others. While they may shun conflict personally, they will fight for other people

Naturally more quiet and low-key, ISFJs will be conciliatory and seek consensus, preferring to see the good in people. They will look to get to a resolution that makes everyone happy. Altercations and excess interaction in general suck the energy of ISFJs. They will need some private “me” time to recharge their batteries and build up their energy levels 

ISFJ at work

ISFJs have a combination of strong work ethic and desire to help people. They are hardworking, organized, responsible, like things done properly, and will demonstrate extremely high standards

ISFJs prefer clarity. If there is none, they will create it. This means they will expect and set tangible goals that they will work steadily and methodically toward, with no deviation or shortcuts. ISFJs are efficient and reliable, and although they may take time to understand what is required, this is so they grasp all the facts to ensure they are clear and will not get it wrong

Risk-averse, traditional, factual, and detailed, ISFJs are best suited to more established, stable, and traditional organizations that value hard work, attention to detail, and adherence to known rules and protocols, with a strong people element. Although quite quiet, ISFJs really do care—seriously care. They will need a more people-centric environment that is team-focused where their efforts, though often understated, are appreciated. Their traditional nature and desire for clarity and facts means ISFJs will fit best where the norms are clear, the culture is people driven, and where there is a place for everything and everything is in its place

ISFJs do not like to “wing it” or to take risks without being in possession of the facts and having thought things through so that they are clear. They do not like ambiguity or harsh environments, wanting to make sure people are supported


INFJs have a unique combination of humanitarian visions and pragmatic sensibilities. They have a knack for reading people and always hope to devote their lives to a meaningful cause. Constantly organizing complex insights within their strong value systems, they are independent yet carin


INFJs are caring folks and good listeners to boot. Kind and affirming, they make others feel safe around them and tend to have many good insights into people. INFJs have their insights emerge in the form of literature, poetry, illustrations, blog posts, etc

Always on the hunt for meaning and symbolism, INFJs readily express themselves in metaphor and symbols. They seek to display warmth and authenticity in their creativity and day-to-day interactions

Quite gentle and soft spoken, INFJs prefer to be out of the limelight, but will work long and hard behind the scenes to maintain harmony. They are also intensely independent—both of thought and spirit—and will be outspoken in their defense of human values, the downtrodden, and the oppressed. INFJs are so dedicated and motivated that they may devote their total being to a cause, a purpose, and sometimes a person. They may tend to idealize to their own detriment. Also, INFJs may get very involved in others’ problems

INFJs tend not to care much about the details of a project; they prefer to map out the broad strokes and let the who-what-when-where-why-how work itself out. They do make plans and set goals, but they avoid getting into needless detail


Quietly forceful

Concerned for others

Puts his/her best effort into work

Single-minded concentration

Areas of Growth

Be objective and flexible

Try to see beyond own values

Communicate insights in a language understood by others

Set priorities and stick to them

Be open-minded and listen


INFJs tend to manage in a predictable, orderly, and very personal fashion. They enjoy being responsible both to the organization and to the people they feel responsible for. INFJs are dedicated, serious, hard-working, and exceptionally loya


Ability to achieve closure on projects

People who communicate directly and honestly

An organized and predictable work environment

Clarity in role definition and limits of responsibilities

Full autonomy

A flexible schedule with control over work and results


Repetitive details

Ignorant, irrational, or illogical people

Too much extroverting

A disorganized workspace

Lack of follow-through from coworkers

(Note: INFJs are among the most stressed out type in the categories of work, intimate relationships, and school. They are also the second-most stressed out type in the category of balancing home and work.)

To function at their best

INFJs do not take “just a job.” They prefer a cause, something they can believe in and into which they can channel their incredibly serious and earnest energy. They often take charity roles or roles that require standing up for the downtrodden or oppressed. Such roles satiate their need for meaning and provide a platform for their values

INFJs think deeply and intensely about their actions. Everything needs to fit into their values ecosystem so that work, life, beliefs, and people are all connected to the whole. Once they buy in, they are incredibly hard workers who will assume roles and responsibilities, even in areas others might avoid, as they are true crusaders for whom the cause can be everything

INFJs will need an outlet for their imaginative and innovative side. Whatever it is the organization does—product or service—must be important to them so they can immerse themselves in it


Getting emotionally close to an INFJ will be difficult, take time, and may never happen. The INFJ world is so driven by values and a complex belief system, that it is difficult for outsiders to “get in” unless invited. Even then, trust will be a process, not an event. Once given, it will be seen as something precious and can be taken back easily if the INFJ perceives someone as having transgressed one of their values

Acutely suspicious about others’ motives, INFJs are not easily led. These are the people that you can rarely fool. Though affable and sympathetic to most, INFJs are selective about their friends. Such a friendship is an important bond that is not to be taken lightly

The problem is that INFJs are so complex, individualistic, and unforthcoming that the other person may not realize that some value or deeply held belief has been transgressed. He or she may be quite surprised how sharply INFJs can react and how outspoken, assertive, and stubborn they can suddenly and uncharacteristically become