5- Soil types

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5- Soil types

Soil types, vary according to their components, and vary between sand, clay, silt, peat and chalk, and they provide the plant with nutrients that support growth

Soil types differ in their characteristics and advantages. Soil is a natural resource that can be categorized into different types, sandy, clay, silt, and others. Determining the type of soil you need for a project is critical to choosing the right plant; So the soil should be well examined

Classification of soil types
The soil can be divided into soils of sand, clay, silt, peat and chalk
On the basis of the dominant size of the particles inside the soil
The size of the particles that make up the soil determines its characteristics because the clay size is less than 0.002 mm, while in silt 0.002-0.05 mm, in sand 0.05-2 mm the stones are larger than 2 km in size

sandy soil


It is a light soil that is characterized by warmth, drought, acidity and lack of nutrients. Sandy soils are often known as light soils; Due to its high sand content and less clay (clay weighs more than sand), this soil has fast drainage and is easy to handle, warming up faster in the spring than clay soil but tending to dry out in the summer

Soil types
Soil types

Sandy soils suffer from low nutrients washed out by rain. Sand consists of rock particles and minerals such as silicon dioxide and increases the size of large sand particles in soil aeration, improves drainage in narrow soils, and creates traits that support plant growth. Adding organic matter is a boost that adds more nourishment to the plant by improving nutrients, and the soil’s ability to hold life. So, studying soil types is very important

clay soil


Clay soil is a heavy soil type that benefits from high nutrients. Clay soil is wet and cool in winter, and suffers from drought in summer. Clay soil is characterized by the following

Clay soil consists of more than 25% of clay
Clay soil retains moisture, and can be compacted easily
Clay soils drain slowly and take longer to warm up in summer, along with drying and cracking in summer

They can often be tested by gardeners to see if they are suitable for the particular plant
Clay soil is known as heavy soil, so it is likely to be fertile because it contains nutrients
More bound to clay minerals in the soil than sandy soils
This soil is characterized when properly managed gives good results
When selecting the right plant variety, it can be rewarding to work with
So clay soil is a productive soil type, and it can often be tested by gardeners to see if it is suitable for the particular plant

loam soil


It is a type of light soil that is able to retain moisture with a high fertility rate. This soil treats the defects of the soil formed from it and takes advantage of its advantages such as the benefit that clay retains moisture and compresses easily. By adding organic matter, silt particles can be bonded into more stable clumps

Soil types
Soil types

When examining loam soil, we find that it is a mixture of sand, silt and clay that is combined to avoid the negative effects of each type. This soil is fertile, easy to work, and provides good drainage because it contains sandy soil. The loam soil is called clay / sandy if the proportion of clay in it is more than sand, and it is sandy Clay if the proportion of sand is more than clay

peat soil


Peat soil is rich in organic matter and retains a large amount of moisture, and this type of soil is rarely found in the garden. It is often imported into the garden to provide an ideal soil base for planting

chalk soil

When conducting a soil examination, we find that chalk soil is light or heavy, with a strong alkalinity, because it contains calcium carbonate. Because it is alkaline soil, it does not support the cultivation of plants that thrive in acidic soil. It is worth noting that lumpy chalk soil cannot be converted to acidic soil; Therefore, only alkaline plants should be grown in it. From all of the above, it is clear that loam soil is the optimal mixture for agricultural soil, as it is considered the best choice for agriculture, but it still needs to add additional organic materials

Soil and diversity support


Soil is usually referred to as the naturally occurring organic matter found on the Earth’s surface, and is mainly made up of minerals, nutrients, water and other inorganic particles, and some plant and animal remains. The function of supporting food and agriculture throughout the world is fundamental to maintaining human life on this planet. One of the most important vital functions of soil is to support the growth of various plants; This supports the above-ground biodiversity, with the diversity of soil types

Some important facts about soil types


There are more living things in a handful of soil, than there are people on Earth
It takes 500 years to produce at least one inch of topsoil, and this is the most productive method of soil
Soil significantly reduces flood risk by storing up to 9,200 tons of water per acre
This stock represents about 0.01% of the total water on the earth, so the soil is considered as a living system
Soil acts as a groundwater filter, filtering out pollutants
Approximately 10% of the world’s carbon dioxide emissions are stored in the soil

Soil provides all the nutrients needed for successful plant growth
Soil consists of 45% minerals, 25% water, 25% air and 5% organic matter for good garden soil
Uncultivated soil is 3% organic matter
50% of the soil is air and water, and the other 50% is broken rocks and decaying plants
The amount of sand, clay and silt is what gives different types of soil their different texture

Soil types
Soil types

soil prospects


Most soils are a mixture of the three
Soil contains six layers called horizons (OHorizon, C, B, E and A), where R is the surface layer and is the bedrock
Worms enrich topsoil by feeding on soil organic matter and converting it into nutrients for plants
The movement of nutrients through the soil, improves absorption and sensitization
Soil, while at the bottom of the food chain, is the cornerstone of life on Earth

Water and Nutrient Dissolving


Water changes the shape of the soil by dissolving and re-deposition of minerals, often at lower levels
In clay soils, solids make up half the volume, gas one-fourth the volume, and water one-fourth the volume
Half of the soil will be available for most plants
Plant roots should seek water and grow preferentially in moist fine soil sites, some parts of the root system moisten the dry parts of the soil

Calcareous soils regulate carbon dioxide concentration by absorbing carbonate
Unlike acidic soils, in which all the carbon dioxide that remains in the soil pore system accumulates
Adequate soil porosity is necessary, to allow water penetration and allow gases to diffuse inward
Soil texture and structure affect soil porosity and gas diffusion
Most soils contain colloidal organic particles, called humus
In addition to unnecessary substances for colloidal particles of clay
A colloid is a small, insoluble particle, ranging in size from 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer
Soil texture is determined by the ratio of the three types of mineral soil particles called soil separators: sand, clay and silt

Soil structures, commonly called soil aggregates, are created from soils that separate
Bulk density is a term that refers to the estimation of soil pressure
Soil porosity consists of the empty part of the soil volume and is occupied by gases or water
The soil temperature and color are self-determining factors
Resistance refers to the resistance to conducting electrical currents and affects the rate of corrosion of metal and concrete structures buried in the soil
These properties differ through the depth of the soil profile i.e. through the soil horizons
Most of these characteristics determine soil aeration, and the ability of water to infiltrate and retain within the soil

Soil types


There are various factors that affect the formation of soil types, including
Erosion operations
sedimentation
Air erosion

Importance of Soil Division
Plant roots are fixed in the soil, so that they grow and grow normally
It works to supply plants and herbs grown in it with water and mineral salts, which serve as food
It works to transport food. It is a place that shelters animals
The decomposition of organic matter, by the microorganisms, in which it is found and return it to the natural cycle of life
In order for the soil to perform its various basic functions, care must be taken to keep it clean and free of waste
And we reduce the amount of materials and chemical fertilizers that are added to the soil, so that it does not lose much of its fertility

Soil testing in soil testing laboratories is critical; Because it determines the type of plants and the amount of productivity, according to the knowledge of soil types

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