3- Liver Cancer

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3- Liver Cancer

The liver is responsible for the continuous filtering of the blood flowing in the body. It also converts nutrients and drugs that are absorbed in the digestive system into ready-to-use chemicals. The liver has other important functions, including removing toxins and other chemicals from the blood and transforming them into excretions

It is easy for cancer cells to reach the liver, as all the blood flowing in the body passes through it

Thus, it is possible for the liver to develop primary cancer in which it forms itself, or cancer that develops in other places in the body and then metastasizes to the liver. In most cases, liver cancer is secondary or metastasis, meaning that the source of the cancerous tumor It is found elsewhere in the body

Worldwide, primary liver cancer affects twice as much men as women, and it is the most common cancer among men, and mostly affects people over 50 years of age

3- Liver Cancer
Liver Cancer

types of liver tumors

The liver is made up of many types of cells, so there are several tumors that can affect it

Some tumors are benign, while others are malignant tumors that can metastasize to other places in the body. Different tumors develop for different reasons and are treated in different ways, and the chances of recovery depend on the type of tumor, here is an explanation of these tumors

Benign liver tumors
The most common benign liver tumors are

Hemangioma
Adenoma in the liver
Focal neoplastic process
Cyst
Leiomyoma
Lymphoma
Fibroma
Treatment for these tumors differs from treatment for carcinoid tumors, sometimes when they cause pain or bleeding they need to be surgically removed

Types of liver cancer
The types of liver cancer are

Hepatocellular carcinoma
Cancer of the gallbladder ducts

Symptoms of liver cancer
Symptoms of liver cancer include

Yellowing of the skin, pallor and jaundice
yellowing of the whites of the eyes
Anorexia
Unexplained weight loss
Feeling tired and exhausted
A mass on the right side of the abdomen
Feeling of flu symptoms

Liver cancer causes and risk factors
Primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) usually occurs in people who have

Congenital abnormalities of the liver
People who drink excessively
People with chronic infection stemming from other diseases, such as: hepatitis C and type B, hemochromatosis, as well as cirrhosis
More than 50% of people with primary liver cancer have cirrhosis that occurs as a result of the above factors

Liver Cancer
Liver Cancer

Carcinogens that cause liver cancer
Several carcinogens are among the most important causes of primary liver cancer, including

Some herbicides
Some chemicals, such as: vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride) and arsenic
Smoking, especially when combined with excessive alcohol consumption
Alpha toxin, a carcinogen produced by a certain type of fungus that may lead to disease, alpha toxin is sometimes found in wheat, pistachios, rice, corn, or soybeans

Other risk factors
Other factors that influence the development of liver cancer include

patient’s gender
weight.
Use of steroids
Liver cancer complications
Complications of liver cancer are the following

Anemia
bleeding
Portal hypertension
High level of calcium in the blood
Hepatic encephalopathy

Liver cancer diagnosis
Imaging tests are not widely used for all patients in order to detect primary liver cancer, but it is possible to perform these tests for people at high risk of infection, although research has not been able to determine if imaging is appropriate and effective for all patients

In order to diagnose liver cancer, it is first necessary to rule out the presence of other diseases that may have the same symptoms

Liver cancer screening tests
Other additional examinations are as follows

blood tests
These tests measure tumor markers, which are substances whose levels are elevated in the blood when liver cancer is present, and can help determine the diagnosis

Liver cancer secretes a substance called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which is generally found in fetuses and disappears at birth

Ultrasound scan
It is the first examination that is generally performed; This is because it can detect tumors about 1 centimeter in size

Computed tomography (CT – Computed tomography) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI – Magnetic resonance imaging)
These examinations can detect existing tumors and aid in their classification and staging, but they often give false positive results

Biopsy
It is the only examination capable of distinguishing between a benign tumor and a malignant one

Laparoscopy
It is an effective examination to detect small tumors, or to determine the circumference of cirrhosis in the liver, or to take a sample for biopsy, and so on

Liver cancer treatment
All types of liver cancer are among the diseases that are difficult to treat. In a few cases, primary liver cancer is detected at an early stage, which is the stage when the chances of treatment are good. Secondary liver cancer is also difficult to treat. This is because the cancer in this case has spread and metastasized.

In addition, the complex networks of blood vessels and bile ducts in the liver complicate the operation of the surgery

Liver cancer treatment is based on improving the patient’s feeling and trying to prolong his life, which is as follows

Liver Cancer
Liver Cancer

Surgery
Tumors that are found in the early stages can be removed with surgery, and patients whose tumors are found in the early stages have the greatest chance of a cure

Unfortunately, in most cases of liver cancer, surgery cannot be performed. This is because the cancer is at an advanced stage, or the injury is too severe to survive surgery

Chemotherapy
In certain cases, tumors can be reduced in size by chemotherapy, which can then be removed by surgery

There is no evidence that chemotherapy after surgery increases the patient’s chances of survival. Patients who have been successfully treated and whose disease has regressed to a state of remission should remain under close observation and follow-up, in order to ensure that the disease does not recur

Cryotherapy
A treatment method during which the tumor is frozen and cauterized by radio waves in order to get rid of the tumor, a method that can be used in certain cases of liver cancer

Radiation therapy
These treatments can be implemented in many ways, but they have limitations. Because the liver is less able to tolerate radiation, radiation is used to relieve symptoms outside the liver or to relieve pain in the liver by shrinking the tumor

Liver transplant
It is a reserved option for treating patients with both hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis, and there is a high risk in this procedure but also a chance of recovery

Advanced liver cancer involves the use of a single, concentrated treatment. The spread of cancer can sometimes be stopped and pain relieved by the use of chemotherapy and low-dose radiotherapy, but the effectiveness of this type of treatment for this cancer is, however, low

Treatment of various pains
Most patients receive a combination of strong pain relievers and medicines to relieve nausea and bloating, or to improve appetite

Sorafenib is the first drug to achieve a very significant improvement in the general condition of patients with advanced liver cancer that cannot be treated with chemotherapy

Treatments still under clinical research
People with advanced liver cancer can choose to join clinical research to examine newer therapies, including freezing tumor cells for the purpose of exterminating them, and using biological agents, such as interferon or interleukin 2, to stimulate the immune system. The immune system can attack cancer cells by using synthetic proteins specifically designed to kill certain tumors

Liver cancer prevention
The following are ways to prevent liver cancer

Drink alcohol in moderation and not excessive
Maintain a healthy and healthy weight
Take vaccinations against hepatitis C
Treating liver problems directly
Undergo regular checkups

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