verb to be completely explained 4

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verb to be completely explained 4

How to use “to be” verbs

Are you confused by “to be” verbs? It’s okay. “To be” verbs change almost more than any other verb. In other words, they are very irregular. Let’s learn how to use “to be” verbs correctly.  Refer back to this lesson when you have questions about how to use them in the future

?What are “to be” verbs

“To be” verbs are: are, am, is, was, were, been and being. They are used to describe or tell us the condition of people, things, places and ideas. For example, they could tell us the subject’s age, nationality, job or other traits

Forms of “To be” by tense

 There are many English tenses, but the main ones you will use are present, past, present progressive and present perfect

forms of to be by tense.png

Subject Verb Agreement When Using “to be” verbs

The correct “to be” verb to use depends on your subject and tense. This chart shows you proper subject verb agreement with “to be” verbs.

Note: Contractions are short forms that will sound more like how people speak.

Feel free to print this out for reference

types of pronouns

Subject Verb agreement.png

 

Example sentences using “to be” verbs

These are examples of how you will see “to be” verbs most often

“To be” verbs in positive present tense sentences

I am American

He is a teacher

She is happy

They are at the movies

“To be” verbs in negative present tense sentences

I am not angry

She is not at school

It is not broken

We are not students

“To be” verbs in affirmative past tense sentences 

I was hungry

She was at the movies 

You were there

It was great

They were excited

“To be” verbs in negative past tense sentences

I was not there

You were not here

He wasn’t a teacher

We weren’t at the restaurant

Questions using “to be” verbs 

To make questions with be verbs, use this order: To be verb + subject + complement

?Was I there

?Were you sad

?Was she at school

?Was it a good movie

?Were they late

الضمائر في اللغة الإنكليزية

Advanced Section

The previous section contained examples of what most beginners need to learn for using “to be” verbs correctly. In this section, we’ll be covering many other ways to use them

The present perfect form 

The present perfect form is used for describing experiences or events that have happened in the past when the exact time is not important

It uses this structure: subject + has/have + been + complement

Examples

I have been there

You have been good

It has been difficult

He has been an electrician

We have been here all day

They have been well-behave 

Asking questions using the present perfect form

Questions in the present perfect perform form use the structure: Has/have + subject + been + complement

Examples

?Have I been mean

?Have you been worried

?Has he been there

?Have they been anxious 

The Present Progressive Form

The present progressive form is for describing continuous or ongoing actions happening right now vs the simple present which describes habits or things which happen now and again

Use this structure for the present progressive tense for “to be” verbs

Subject + be verb + verb + ing 

Examples

I am watching television

You are pushing the wrong button

He is looking at the window

She is studying

It is raining

We are traveling

They are thinking 

 

Question tags using “to be” verbs 

You can add a question tag to the end of a statement to turn it into a question. To put question tags onto sentences using “to be” verbs, use this structure

statement + “to be” verb + pronoun. The “to be” verb used in the question tag must be the same one used in the statement

Note: When adding question tags, if the “to be” verb in the statement is positive, then the one in the question tag must be negative. If the “to be” verb statement is negative, the one in the question tag, must be positive

Just think

+statement – question tag

-statement + question tag

Examples

I wasn’t being rude, was I? (negative statement with positive question tag) 

It was good, wasn’t it? (positive statement with negative question tag)

You were there, weren’t you? (positive statement with negative question tag)

It wasn’t too bad, was it? (negative question tag with positive question tag)

They weren’t angry, were they? (negative statement with positive question tag) 

The linking “To be” verb (descriptions)

The linking “to be” verb describes the condition of the subject. Below are a few sentence structures using the linking “to be” verbs

In statements that describe, you’ll see this structure in which the sentences have a “to be” verb linking the subject to a subject complement or adjective complement

Subject + “to be” verb + complement


Examples

I am excited

It is boring

She is the leader 

They are at the bank 

Sometimes when answering a question you can see just a subject and “to be” verb used as in this structure

subject + “to be” verb

Examples

?Q: Are you the doctor

A: I am

?Q: Is she the teacher

A: She is

Adding adverbs to your sentences with linking  “to be” verbs

Reminder: Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs in order to tell us how, when, where, why, how often or to what extent

Structure: Subject + “to be” verb + adverb +complement or

Adverb, subject + “to be” verb + complement

Examples

I am always on time

It is never boring

Sometimes, it is difficult

To be” verbs for discussing possibility or giving suggestions

When describing possibilities you’ll typically use the following structure

Subject + modal verb (could, should, would, might etc) + be + complement

Note: “be” stays in this base form directly after a modal verb

Examples

He could be a superstar

She might be late

You should be nice to your parents

When giving suggestions, it is a little more complicated

Examples

subject + modal verb (suggest)+ object + be + complement

subject + modal verb (advise)+ object + to be + complement

I suggest you be nice to your mother

I advise you to be cooperative

قواعد النطق للغة الإنكليزية

Imperatives: giving commands using “to be” verbs

When giving imperatives or commands, “to be” verbs stay in the base form of be and typically stay at the beginning of the sentence. In these sentences, the subject is implied so it doesn’t have to be written, that is why you only see the “to be” verb followed by the complement

Structure: “to be” verb + complement or

Do not + “to be” verb + complement

Examples

Be a good student

Be nice to your teacher

Don’t be mean to him

When to use “to be” verbs as infinitives 

Infinitives are to plus a verb in order to make a noun. So you’ll see them in the subject or object of a sentence. They are used to describe the abstract, so they most often are used with a modal verb of desire

I want to be a singer

He likes to be the best at what he does

They hope to be friends

When making these negative, you’ll put do not or does not before the modal verb

Examples

Note: following don’t or doesn’t modal verbs such as like, want, need, or hope will stay in base form

I don’t want to be difficult

He does not like to be mean

She doesn’t want to be a musician

The passive voice using “to be” verbs

In sentences using the passive voice, the person or thing which is performing the action is either in the object of the sentence or even omitted. When written, the noun performing the action is normally found following a preposition such as “by

The most common passive voice construction is this 

Subject + “to be” verb + verb or

Subject + “to be” verb + verb + by + object 

In these constructions, the “to be” verb will follow the standard rules for subject verb agreement. The examples below have sentences using “to be” verbs in different tenses 

Examples

Present: The car is powered by electricity

Present progressive: The work is being done

Past: The building was demolished by the crew

Future: The meal will be prepared by the chef 

Present perfect: The coffee had been made

We have covered many ways in which you can use “to be” verbs. Follow our blog for more lessons like this one. Also, if you would like to find out more about studying English online or in the United States, contact us here. FLS International offers live online classes, in-person classes, cultural tours and more

The simple present of the verb to be

This page will present the simple present of the verb to be

its form

and its use

The verb to be

The verb to be is the most important verb in the English language. It is difficult to use because it is an irregular verb in almost all of its forms.  In the simple present tense, to be is conjugated as follows

you can watch the following video

Affirmative forms of the verb to be

Subject PronounsFull FormContracted Form
Iam‘m
youare‘re
he/she/itis‘s
weare‘re
youare‘re
theyare‘re

Interrogative forms of the verb to be:

AmI
Areyou
Ishe/she/it
Arewe
Areyou
Arethey

Negative Forms of the verb to be

Subject PronounsFull FormContracted Form
Iam notm” not
youare notaren’t
he/she/itis notisn’t
weare notaren’t
youare notaren’t
theyare notaren’t

Examples

?Is Brad Pitt French

No, he isn’t. He‘s American

?What about Angelina Joli? Is she American, too

Yes, she is. She is American

?Are brad Pitt and Angelina Joli French

No, They aren’t. They are American

Use of the simple present of to be

The principal use of the simple present is to refer to an action or event that takes place habitually, but with the verb “to be” the simple present tense also refers to a present or general state, whether temporary, permanent, or habitual

am happy

She is helpful

The verb to be in the simple present can be also used to refer to something true at the present moment

She is 20 years old

He is a student

Remember

I, you, he, she, it, you, they are subject pronouns (also called personal pronouns, a term used to include both subject and object pronouns.)

am, are, is are forms of the verb to be in the simple present

‘m, ‘re, ‘s are short (contracted) forms of  am, are, is

‘m not, aren’t, isn’t are short (contracted forms) of am not, are not, is n

Infinitive Verb

Do you know the difference between an infinitive verb and a base verb? Do you know when and how to use infinitive verbs? Learn the answers to these questions with definitions and examples of infinitive verbs

infinitive verb example

Defining an Infinitive Verb

An infinitive verb is essentially the base form of a verb with the word “to” in front of it. When you use an infinitive verb, the “to” is a part of the verb. It is not acting as a preposition in this case

Some examples of infinitive verbs include

to be

to have

to hold

to sleep

to spend

Infinitives are never conjugated with -ed or -ing at the end because they are not used as verbs in a sentence. They’re one of the three types of verbals, which are verbs used as an adjective, noun or adverb. The other verbals are gerunds and participles

ترتيب الأحرف للغة الإنكليزية

Infinitive Verb vs. Base Verb

Infinitives include the basic (unconjugated) form of a verb, but they don’t function the same way. The most basic form of a verb is the base form. The base form is just the verb, without the “to.” You’ll see verbs in their basic forms in the dictionary, but not in written sentences that require conjugation

Base forms of verbs include

be

have

hold

sleep

spend

Using an Infinitive Verb

You can use infinitives in several ways. Because they function as nouns, adjectives and adverbs, they can appear almost anywhere. Now that you can spot an infinitive, take a look at the various ways they pop up in the English language

Object of a Sentence

The most common way to use infinitive verbs is as a direct object or an indirect object. When the subject performs an action, the infinitive can answer the question “What?” as the object of that action

Examples of the above infinitives used as direct include

I want to be an astronaut. (The verb is want)

Shane asked to have another hamburger. (The verb is ask)

The manager promised to hold the job for me. (The verb is promise)

Try to sleep a little more before our flight. (The verb is try)

Chuck hopes to spend less than $30 on his haircut. (The verb is hope)

After Adjectives

You can use infinitive verbs after adjectives to clarify meaning. Adjectives that include the words “too” or “enough” require infinitives to fill in the rest of the meaning

the video is here

For example

It’s too hard to be an astronaut. (The adjective is too hard)

Shane is too full to have another hamburger. (The adjective is too full)

The manager is nice to hold the job for me. (The adjective is nice)

It’s smart to sleep before our flight. (The adjective is smart)

Chuck is wealthy enough to spend $30 on his haircut. (The adjective is wealthy enough)

Subject of a Sentence

Infinitives do appear as the subject of a sentence from time to time. One of the most famous examples of an infinitive as the subject of a sentence is Hamlet’s immortal phrase, “To be or not to be” from Shakespeare’s Hamlet

You might see infinitives appear in sentences like this

To be an astronaut is my dream

To have a hamburger was what Shane wanted

To hold the job was what the manager promised

To sleep before the flight is a good idea

To spend $30 on a haircut is out of the question

Even though they’re grammatically correct, these sentences sound a bit awkward. You’re better off changing these subjects to gerunds, which are -ing words that function as nouns (for example: “Being an astronaut is my dream.” or “Sleeping before the flight is a good idea.”)

Bare Infinitives

A bare infinitive is an infinitive without “to.” It’s not the same thing as a base verb; bare infinitives are still used as verbals in a sentence. You’re most likely to see bare infinitives with modal verbs (would, could, can, should, will, may, might, ought to, shall, and others)

For example

I could be an astronaut

Shane might have another hamburger

?Can the manager hold the job for me

You should sleep a little more before our flight

Chuck won’t spend more than $30 on his haircut

You’ll also see bare infinitives after other verbs, such as let, hear, feel, make, see, need, help, watch, smell, or any other verb that indicates perception. It also follows the word better in English, as in “You’d better ask permission.” instead of “You’d better to ask permission.”Advertisement

Sentence Examples of Verbs Followed by Infinitives

You’ve seen more infinitives than you think in your everyday reading. Take a look at these sentences to find common verbs that precede infinitives

afford – We can’t afford to eat out every night

agree – Let’s agree to disagree

aim – I aim to please

appear – She appears to have the chicken pox

arrange – I’ll arrange to meet you at 3:00

attempt – We attempted to contact him several times

beg – She begged to stay up past her bedtime

?care – Would you care to dance

choose – He’ll always choose to eat pizza if given the choice

claim – They claim to have been home all night

?dare – Do you dare to approach me

decide – We decided to get married in a hot air balloon

demand – I demand to know who said that

deserve – You deserve to have all you want in life

determined – They are determined to finish the race

?expect – Do you expect to see her any time soon

fail – She failed to achieve any of her goals

happen – I happen to have all the things you need

help – It would help to be able to swim

hesitate – He hesitated to ask for the day off

hope – She hopes to be engaged by the end of the summer

learn – We’re learning to communicate better

long – Oh, how he longed to hold her in his arms

?manage – Have you managed to complete your work on time for once

mean – I didn’t mean to hurt you

need – You need to think before you speak

neglect – He neglected to tell his parents about the accident

offer – Jim offered to help me pack

?plan – What do you plan to do after college

prepare – I’m preparing to run away

pretend – Don’t pretend to sleep when I’m talking to you

proceed – We then proceeded to drink until we blacked out

promise – I promise to love you forever

refuse – She refused to sign the documents

resolve – He has resolved never to fight again

seem – They seem to be having some sort of argument

stop – We stopped to use the restroom and stretch

?swear – Do you swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth

tend – I tend to laugh when I’m nervous

threaten – He threatened to shoot me if I didn’t give him my wallet

use – My brother bought spray paint, which he used to cover up the graffiti

volunteer – They volunteered to paint kids’ faces at the fair

vow – We vowed to love and cherish one another

?want – Do you really want to hurt me

/wish – Do you wish to see me cry

would hate – I would hate to be in his shoes

would like – The gentleman would like to accompany the lady home

would love – I would love to dance

would prefer – He would prefer to go bowling, but she wants to see a movie

am is are شرح كل القواعد في درس واحد

تعلم كل قواعد am is are في اللغة الإنجليزية و التي تشمل زمن المضارع البسيط و المضارع المستمر و بعض ازمنة المبني للمجهول لتتمكن من تكوين الجملة بتلك الكلمات.

الفعل “يكون” في اللغة الانجليزية Verb to Be

Be
مصدر الفعل بمعنى يكون

التصريف في زمن المضارع البسيط


am  و تأتي مع I
أنا أكون  = I am
is و تأتي مع He – She – It  – اسم مفرد
هو يكون He is
هي تكون She is
هو\هي لغير العاقل يكون It is
are و تأتي مع They / we/ you
هم يكونون they are
نحن نكون we are
انت تكون – انتم تكونون  You are

ماذا يأتي بعد Verb to be في المضارع البسيط؟

صفة Adjective

He is tall.
هو طويل.
She is good at science.
هي جيدة في العلوم.
I am sick.
أنا مريض.
They are friendly.
هم ودودون.

اسم Noun

I am a doctor.
أنا طبيب.
Sara is a child.
سارة طفلة.

You are the manager.
انت المدير.

حرف Preposition

She is in a bad situation.
هي في موقف سيء.
The book is on the table.
الكتاب فوق الطاولة.

ظرف Adverb

They are here.
هم هنا.
You are inside the house.
انت داخل المنزل.

Verb to be في صيغة السؤال

?How is she
كيف حالها؟

?Is this tool useful
هل هذه الأداة مفيدة؟

Verb to be في صيغة النفي

They are not my friends
هم ليسوا أصدقائي
I am not happy
انا لست سعيدا
This is not funny
هذا ليس مضحكا

زمن المضارع المستمر The Present continuous Tense

Am / is / are + V .ing
am / is / are أفعال مساعدة
He is doing his homework now
هو يقوم بواجبه ألآن
I am cooking at the moment
أنا أطبخ في هذه اللحظة
?What are they doing now
ماذا يفعلون ألآن؟
I am not talking about you
أنا لا أتكلم عنك

am is are في المبني للمجهول

المضارع البسيط

I eat apples daily
Apples are eaten daily
أنا أكل التفاح كل يوم
التفاح يؤكل كل يوم
I am eating apples now
Apples are being eaten now
أنا أكل التفاح ألآن
التفاح يؤكل ألآن

طريقة نفي الافعل المساعدة

  • am = في حال النفي تصبح am not
  • is = في حال النفي تصبح is not
  • are = في حال النفي تصبح are not

امثلة على النفي

  • Mohammed is not a teacher
    محمد ليس معلماً
  • They are not in the classroom
    هم ليسو في الفصل (القاعة الدراسية)
  • I am not from the city
    انا ليس من المدينة

اختصار الكلمات في حال النفي

  • am = لا يوجد لها اختصار
  • is = تصبح isn’t
  • are = تصبح aren’t

درس ( 2 ) قاعدة am / is / are في السؤال.

قاعدة am / is / are  في صيغة السؤال:

كما شرحنا في الدرس الأول درس (1) أننا نستخدم am / is / are  في محل الفعل إذا غاب الفعل، وقاعدتها هي:

amI
ishe / she / it
arethey / we / you

 أما إذا أردنا أن نسأل شخص ما سؤالاً فإننا نستخدم القاعدة السابقة للدرس الأول ولكن بجعل الفعل المساعد am / is / are يأتي في بداية الجملة، وقاعدتها:

Iam
he / she/ itis
we / they / youare

إذاً كل مافعلناه هو أننا وضعنا الفعل المساعد في أول الجملة وهذه أمثلة على ذلك:

 am I late?   هل أنا متأخر؟

 is he late?  هل هو متأخر؟

are you late?  هل أنت متأخر؟ أو هل أنتم متأخرون؟

كما ترى في المثال السابق  am / is / are  أتت في بداية الجملة وتعني “هل“.

أما إذا أردنا الإجابة على الأسئلة فإننا نطبق ما شرحناه في الدرس الأول درس (1) وهي ببساطة أن نبدأ بالاسم ثم الفعل المساعد وللمثال:

السؤال:  are you late?  هل أنت متأخر؟

الجواب: yes I am late  نعم أنا متأخر.

لاحظ في المثال السابق هناك فرقين في الجملتين:

الفرق الأول : هو أن الفعل المساعد يأتي في أول الجملة عند السؤال كصيغة “هل” بينما في الإجابة يأتي بعد الأسم مباشرة  كصيغة إجابة لغياب الفعل.

الفرق الثاني: هو أن في صيغة السؤال في الضمير المخاطب are يكون الجواب في صيغة الإجابة am  لأن المخاطب بدأ يتكلم عن نفسة كما أسلفنا في توضيحها في درس (1).

شرح القاعدة: في 4 خطوات:

  1. في صيغة السؤال للضمير المفرد المخاطب نستخدم  are “هل”  يكون الجواب am  لان الجملة تغيرت من ضمير مخاطب في السؤال  الى ضمير متكلم في الجواب.
  2. وأما في صيغة السؤال للضمير المفرد الغائب is “هل” فتكون الإجابة بإستخدام نفس الفعل المساعد is لأن الشخص السائل والمجيب يتكلمون عن شخص ما ليس حاضر معهم، للمثال:

سؤال: is she late? هل هي متأخرة

الجواب: yes, she is late.  نعم هي متأخرة

لاحظ هنا لم يتغير الفعل المساعد is  في صيغة السؤال ولا في الجواب كما حدث لنا مع الفعل المساعد are  في حين السؤال و am  في حين الجواب، وذلك بسبب أن is  تأتي محل الفعل في الضمير الغائب أي حين تتكلم  مع شخص عن شخص أخر فأنت تسأل هل هي متأخرة والجواب سيكون نعم هي متأخرة.

             3. وأيضا لايتغير الفعل المساعد عندما نستخدم  are  في صيغة سؤال لضمير الجمع الغائب ” they ” هاؤلاء ، للمثال:

are they late? هل هم متأخرون؟

yes, they are late. نعم إنهم متأخرون.

هنا لم تتغير are  لا في صيغة السؤال ولا في الجواب وذلك بسبب أن السائل والمجيب يتكلمون عن مجموعة أشخاص اخرون وليس عن شخص مفرد غائب.

لاحظ عند سؤال شخص مفرد مخاطب ( أي يتكلم معك ) فإننا نستخدم are you late  عند السؤال، وفي الجواب نستخدم yes I am late  وهنا حولنا  are التي سمعناها من السائل الى  am التي سنقولها في الجواب وذلك بسبب أنه السائل يسأل شخص أمامة ويخاطبة.

            4.عندما يسأل شخص ما مجموعة أشخاص يتكلمون معة فإن صيغة السؤال are ” هل”  لاتتغير حتى في الإجابة، للمثال:

are you late?  هل أنتم متأخرون؟

yes we are late. نعم نحن متأخرون.

هنا لم تتغير are  لا في السؤال ولا في الجواب وذلك بسبب أن السائل يسأل مجموعة أشخاص أمامة ويخاطبهم وليس السؤال موجة لشخص واحد.

الخلاصة:

أنة في صيغة السؤال للمفرد المخاطب نستخدم “are” ويكون الجواب للشخص  الذي إستقبل السؤال بـ “am”  لأن السؤال كان ضمير مفرد مخاطب والجواب بالطبع سيكون ضمير مفرد متكلم. للمثال:

سؤال: are you late? هل أنت متأخر؟

الجواب: yes, I am late. نعم أنا متأخر.

أنه في صيغة السؤال عن المفرد الغائب نستخدم ” is”  ويكون الجواب للشخص الذي إستقبل السؤال بإستخدام “is” لإجابة نيابة عن الشخص الغائب بنفس الصيغة لأن السائل والمجيب يتكلمون عن شخص ما ليس حاضراً معهم، للمثال:

سؤال: is he late? هل هو متأخر؟

الجواب: yes, he is late. نعم هو متأخر

أنه في صيغة السؤال عن الجمع الغائب والحاضر نستخدم” are”  ويكون الجواب للشخص الذي إستقبل السؤال بإستخدام “are” للإجابة سواء عن أنفسهم كمجموعة أشخاص أو للإجابة عن مجموعة أشخاص غير حاضرين، للمثال:

سؤال سؤال عن مجموعة أشخاص غائبون: are they late? هل هم متأخرون؟

الجواب:  yes, they are late. نعم هم متأخرون

سؤال  مجموعة أشخاص حاضرون يتكلمون مع السائل: are you late?  هل أنتم منتأخرون؟

الجواب: yes, we are late. نعم نحن متأخرون.

إذاً يتكرر الفعل المساعد am / is / are  في جميع الحالات  الا في حالة واحدة وهي في حالة ان السؤال موجة لشخص مفرد حاضر يتكلم مع السائل فيكون السؤال بـ are والأجابة بـ am  وأما بقية الحالات فإن السؤال سواءً am / is / are يكون الجوابة بنفس الفعل المساعد المستخدم في السؤال.

أتمنى أن أكون وفقت في شرح هذه القاعدة بوضوح وإذا واجهت أي صعوبات في الفهم يمكنك التواصل معي عبر

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وإذا أردت أن أشرح لك أي قاعدة أخري فلا تتردد بالسؤال فأنا حاضر للمساعدة في أي وقت..

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